If you have a child with special needs, you are no doubt familiar with many of the services and accommodations provided to them by their school. You may also have a clear understanding of some of the laws that guarantee your child the appropriate support services in an educational setting. You are likely also familiar with the time, energy and red tape required to obtain services for your child. It is a complicated process indeed, with many legal underpinnings guiding the development and administration of programs for special needs kids.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
First passed in 1975 as the Education of Handicapped Children Act, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), as it stands today, is the result of revisions in 1990, 1997 and 2004. Prior to 1975, children with disabilities were either placed in segregated classrooms in public schools or denied access to public education altogether.
Today’s iteration of IDEA includes four parts, including Part B, which outlines the service requirements for children from 3-21 years of age, and Part C, which governs the administration of services to children from birth to 2 years of age. IDEA, among other things, establishes that families have a right to:
- A Free and Appropriate Public Education for school-aged children.
- An Individualized Education Plan for public school students.
- A consultation with a school professional to determine the level of a disabled child’s needs.
- Access to early intervention services for infants and toddlers.
- An Individualized Family Service Plan for infants and toddlers.
IDEA provides guidance with regard to the process by which a student is identified as having a disability. First, a child is identified, usually by referral from school personnel. Parents can also request that their child be evaluated if they suspect a disability is present. Once the child is evaluated, his or her eligibility for services is determined. If the determination is made that the child has a disability, an IEP meeting is scheduled and the document is written. From there, services are provided and annual progress is measured and reported.
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- gain from each other's efforts.
- recognize that all group members share a common fate.
- know that one's performance is mutually caused by oneself and one's team members.
- feel proud and jointly celebrate when a group member is recognized for achievement.
- promote student learning and academic achievement
- increase student retention
- enhance student satisfaction with their learning experience
- help students develop skills in oral communication
- develop students' social skills
- promote student self-esteem
- help to promote positive race relations
Those conditions are:
- Each group member's efforts are required and indispensable for group success
- Each group member has a unique contribution to make to the joint effort because of his or her resources and/or role and task responsibilities
- Orally explaining how to solve problems
- Teaching one's knowledge to other
- Checking for understanding
- Discussing concepts being learned
- Connecting present with past learning
- Keeping the size of the group small. The smaller the size of the group, the greater the individual accountability may be.
- Giving an individual test to each student.
- Randomly examining students orally by calling on one student to present his or her group's work to the teacher (in the presence of the group) or to the entire class.
- Observing each group and recording the . . . read more