Education is an evolving process that consistently introduces new theories and practices in accordance with the most recent research available. One of the latest introductions into the world of education today is STEM education
, which focuses on the core subjects of science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Is STEM offering a whole new approach to education that will bring American students into the 21st
century, or is it merely another passing ebb and flow in the education tide? While only time will tell with certainty, there are definite reasons to take a closer look at this new approach that is sweeping across many school districts today.
What is STEM Education?
The process of STEM education is about much more than simply incorporating these four subjects into a core curriculum. The key to successful, effective STEM education is the actual integration of these disciplines into a single “meta-discipline.” According to a report at CurrTech Innovations, STEM can be defined as the “creation of a discipline based on the integration of other disciplinary knowledge into a new ‘whole’. This interdisciplinary bridging among discrete disciplines is now treated as an entity, known as ‘STEM’.”
A report at InTech
explains that “a successful STEM education provides students with science, math, and engineering/technology in sequences that build upon each other and can be used with real-world applications.” The concept of STEM was first introduced by Judith A. Ramaley, the former director of the National Science Foundation’s education and human resources division. Since 2001, the acronym has been a regular part of the vocabulary used in the world of education.
Why is it Important Today?
According to DRPFConsults.com
, the National Science Foundation estimates that 80% of the jobs available during the next decade will require math
and science skills. InTech reports that according to 10-year predictions by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 15 of the 20 fastest growing fields will require significant math and science preparation. The United States must produce workers proficient in these fields to stay at the cutting edge of science and technology throughout the 21st
Unfortunately, the country is not currently at the forefront in these areas of study. InTech reports that eighth-graders in the United States are being outperformed by students in Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Republic of Korea, Hong Kong SAR, Estonia, Japan, Hungary and Netherlands. In math, U.S. students are currently outperformed by students in Singapore, Republic of Korea, Hong Kong SAR, Chinese Taipei, Japan, Belgium, Netherlands, Estonia, Hungary, Malaysia, Latvia, Russian Federation, Slavic Republic and Australia.
Recent figures show that only 29 percent of high school graduates tested ready for higher education in science, and just 43 percent are considered prepared for college
-level math courses. This has translated into fewer students majoring in fields of study that require a significant amount of math and science, which is slowing evolving into a shortage of skilled workers in these fields. If the trend continues, many predict there will be a significant employment shortage in important industries like science and engineering in the not-so-distant future.
President Obama has addressed this need directly by creating the Educate to Innovate campaign. This bipartisan campaign stresses studies in math and science through partnerships with businesses, universities, non-profit organizations, foundations and government agencies. The goal of the campaign is to raise America back into the forefront in these fields so the country can remain competitive in a global market throughout the next century.
The Benefits of STEM Education
In addition to the benefits STEM provides to the U.S. workforce overall, there are individual benefits students that graduate from a STEM program enjoy. Some of those benefits include
- Promotes equality in education (STEM benefits both male and female students equally)
- Teaches independent innovation
- Allows students to explore subjects at greater depth
- Helps students develop critical thinking skills
In addition to these benefits, students who graduate from STEM programs often find that they are better prepared for the rigors of a college curriculum that will jumpstart them on a rewarding and well-paying career in the fields of science or engineering. Recent data at STEMReports.com
lists some of the following reasons why students choose STEM over other fields of study:
- Good salary right out of school
- Intellectually challenging
- Good job potential
- Student is passionate about field of study
- Students performed well in these subjects in primary and secondary grades
- To make a difference
- The U.S. is in need of qualified workers in these fields
Because there are many potential advantages to STEM education, the idea has received support from government leaders, educators, business members and students alike. However, a new approach to education like STEM is not without its share of hurdles to mount.
Potential Drawbacks of the STEM Model
One of the largest drawbacks to the STEM model is that it does not provide clear-cut guidelines for educators to follow as they develop their own STEM education models within their schools. To be successful, STEM must become an intricate dance between engineering and technology concepts that are layered into core math and science subjects. According to the CurrTech report, many high school programs remain highly departmentalized, and the integration of curriculum is solely left up to the teachers who currently teach those subjects. When teachers transfer or retire, the integration is disrupted and must be started anew with the next teacher to fill the position.
At the elementary level, STEM progress becomes even more dismal, as few teachers qualified to teach in the areas of math or science are found in primary schools. Currently, there are no national standards for STEM education or for teacher certification in these programs. As a result, STEM education is somewhat disjointed and inconsistent throughout the country, leaving parents and students unsure of what type of quality STEM education is actually being offered at their local schools. Many students graduate from a STEM program, only to find they are no better prepared for college studies than those who did not participate in STEM. It is clear that standards must be in place, but how do those standards come into being?
Defining function and focus of STEM
One solution to the problems facing STEM education today is the development of a world standard that would provide schools at all levels the guidance and direction required to produce capable and qualified STEM students. According to CurrTech, these students should possess the following characteristics:
- Problem Solvers
- Logical Thinkers
- Technologically Literate
CurrTech also reports that standards to produce these results actually exist already, through the National Science Education Standards, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards and the National Education Technology Standards for Students. However, integration and implementation of these standards will require expertise and resources. That is where support from the federal and state governments comes into play.
Government Support for STEM Education
The good news is that government support for STEM education has been growing slowly but surely, particularly with the advances made by the federal government since President Obama took office. However, state governments are also getting into STEM mode, as they band together to bring STEM education into schools across the country. According to a recent report at the National Governor’s Association website
, the NGA recently released a guide, “Building a Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Education Agenda.” The guide offers an overview of creating STEM education that school districts nationwide can follow.
“STEM education is a powerful foundation for individual and societal economic success,” Bev Perdue, the governor of North Carolina, stated on the website. “Governors have been working hard to improve education and to ensure the United States does not lag behind.”
Toward that goal, the NGA recommends that states take the following actions to improve the quality of education within their schools:
- Adopt rigorous math and science standards and assessment tools to evaluate those standards
- Recruit and retain more classroom teachers qualified in STEM subjects
- Provide more rigorous classroom curriculum for STEM students
- Use informal leaning to expand math and science studies outside the classroom
- Enhance the quality and support of STEM teachers
- Establish goals for institutions of higher education to better meet STEM employment needs
In addition to the work of the states in improving STEM education in their own schools, the federal government is hard at work providing resources and support to schools that are interested in advancing STEM education.
New STEM Education Office Proposed for Federal Government
A recent article in U.S. News and World Report
explains that U.S. Representative Michael Honda has proposed a new bill called the STEM Education Innovation Act of 2011. The bill, which has been introduced to the U.S. House of Representatives, would create a new Office of STEM Education within the current Department of Education. The new office would be headed by an assistant secretary of STEM education, who would work with businesses, stakeholders and researchers in STEM fields to develop a competent and qualified American workforce for the 21st
According to the article, passage of this bill would “equip schools across the country to enthrall and educate the students of today so they can become the Sally Ride or Steve Jobs of tomorrow.” The office would support a state consortia on STEM education to create the best STEM practices that would help students prepare for the jobs of the future. It would also explore ways to increase participation in STEM education, particularly for underrepresented communities
in STEM industries. The office would also grant funding to outside entities committed to promoting STEM education with education technology innovations.
Any new program requires significant resources to develop, and STEM education is no exception. Because many believe in the power of STEM, there are willing donors to the cause of advancing STEM education across the country. A recent report at Education Week
cites a number of sources of grants that will specifically go to fund STEM through the National Science Foundation and the Gates Foundation
The National Science Foundation has currently provided two grants to advance STEM education in a variety of ways. The first, consisting of $1.35 million, will be used to create a new type of science lab in schools that more effectively bridges the gap between simulated and real-world environments.
“Many science classrooms use simulations to demonstrate scientific principles and theories,” Jennifer Chiu, an assistant professor of STEM education at the University of Virginia’s Curry’s School of Education, told Education Week. “However, students have trouble making connections between the simulations and the real world.”
The second grant, totaling $13 million, will consist of a competition under its Computing Education for the 21st Century program. This grant will come in three waves, which will be distributed over three years. The goal is to have rigorous computing curriculum integrated into 10,000 high schools across the country.
The Gates Foundation is also providing a $3 million grant to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Education Arcade to design and build a multi-player online game to help high school students learn complex subjects like biology and mathematics.
“The genre of games is uniquely suited to teaching the nature of scientific inquiry because they provide collaborative, self-directed learning situations,” Eric Klopfer, associate professor for Massachusetts Institute of Technology, told Education Week. “Players take on the roles of scientists, engineers, and mathematicians to explore and explain a robust virtual world.”
Finding a STEM Program
Parents who are interested in enrolling their children in a STEM program may find that it is easier said than done. Because STEM is still a relatively new concept in education, the number of actual STEM schools is still few. However, if you are fortunate to have a STEM school in your area, there are some questions to ask to ensure the program is a quality one:
- What are the standards used for mathematics and science?
- What are the credentials of the teachers who are teaching math and science subjects?
- What types of assessments are used to track student progress?
- How much time is focused on these subjects each week?
By researching STEM schools before enrolling your student, you can rest assured the program you choose will offer the education your child needs to progress into a lucrative and exciting future in the world of STEM.